Knowledge Mapping Research
The Knowledge Tree
Maps Tree: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

 Pillar 4: Space and earth 

4.1 Theory 
4.2 Space
4.3 Earth
4.3.1 Surface and substance
Physical geographyGeologySoil science
4.3.2 Interrelations 
Agriculture (land) | Environmental science | Emergency management

4.1 Theory 
  The nature and origin of the universe

  Cosmology (W)
   (or physical cosmology)
   explores the nature and origin of the universe


     Philosophy of cosmology

     • History of cosmology
        History of the field 


      Physical cosmology (W)
         Scientific study of the origin and nature
         of the universe (cosmos).
         Part of astronomy 

      Theoretical cosmology
        Cosmological theories and models (e.g., The Big Bang)

      Observational cosmology (W)
         Empirical based cosmology

4.2 Space (W)
   Exploration of the outer space

Astronomy (W)
    Exploration of the outer space

   Theory (metaknowledge of astronomy)

      Philosophy of astronomy

      History of astronomy (W)



      Astrophysics (W)

      • Physical cosmology (W) 

      • Theoretical astrophysics (W)

      • Observational astrophysics (W)

      • Computational astrophysics (W)
           Applying computing in astrophysics research
          (see Computational astrophysics c.

      Astrochemistry (W)
         (or cosmochemistry (W))
         Chemical processes and substances in spcae

      Astrogeology (W)
        Planetery geology. Solar system

      Astrobiology (W)

   Objects & phenomena  

     • Extragalactic astronomy (W)
         Beyond the Milky Way galaxy

     Galactic astronomy (W)
         Milky Way galaxy (W) 




     Theoretical astronomy (W)

     • Observational astronomy (W)
         Astronomy based on observations

      • Radio astronomy (W)
           Using radio waves for space exploration

      • Microwave astronomy (W)
           (or Submillimetre astronomy (W))
           Microwaves radiation for space exploration

      • Infrared astronomy (W)

           including: Near, Mid and Far infrared astronomy (W)
           Infrared radiation for space exploration

      • Visible-light astronomy (W)
           (or Optical astronomy)
           Using visible-light for space exploration 

      • Ultraviolet (UV) astronomy (W)

      • X-ray astronomy (W)

Gamma ray astronomy (W)

Cosmic ray astronmy (W)
           Astroparticles physics
           (Part of particle physics)
           Exploring high energy particles (cosmic ray (W

Neutrino astronomy (W)

   • Gravitational-wave astronomy (W)
          (or High-energy astrophysics)

     • Computational astronomy (W)


      Photometry (W)

     • Astrometry (W)
   Measuring position and movements of stars 

     • Laboratory astronomy (W)

4.3 Earth (W)
   The Earth

 4.3.1 Surface and substance
    Surface and substance of the Earth

Physical geography (W)
    The surface of the Earth

   Theory (metaknowledge of geography)

• Philosophy of geography (W)

     History of geography (W)

• Atmospheric sciences (W)
        The Earth's atmosphere
        (Gases surround the Earth)

      • Climatology (W)
           Long term weather systems

      • Meteorology (W)
           Short term weather systems

     • Geomorphology (W)
        Shaping the surface of the Earth

     • Hydrology (W)
        Water on Earth

     • Oceanography (W)

     • Glaciology (W)
        Glaciers and ice 

     Pedology (see soil science)

• Biogeography (W)
         Distribution of living organisms

      • Phytogeography (W)
          Botanical geography 

      • Zoogeography (W)
          Animal geography

Geology (W)
    The study of the solid earth

   Theory (metaknowledge of geology)

      Philosophy of geology

      History of geology (W)


      Geophysics (W)

Soil science (W)

     Edaphology (W)
        Interrelations among soils and plants 

     Pedology (W)
        Soil formation and evolution

4.3.2 Interrelations 

Agriculture (see cat. 5.2)

Environmental science (W)

Emergency management (W)

The Space and Earth pillar

The Space and Earth pillar explores our planet and the outer space.


Cosmology (also known as scientific cosmology and physical cosmology) is the scientific study of the nature and origin of the universe.



Agriculture is the study of cultivating the land, animals and plants. The land agriculture is represented in cat. 4.3.2. The animals and plants agriculture is represented in cat. 5.2.