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Knowledge Map of Information Science: Forum
Information Science: Conceptions & Models. The British Museum Reading Room, London. This building used to be the main reading room of the British Library; now it is itself a museum exhibit. Source: Wikipedia.
What is Information Science? What are its boundaries, and its basic building blocks?

Reflections Data, Information, Knowledge Conceptions Classifications & Maps Knowledge Science

Hanne Albrechtsen  Anthony Debons Nicolae Dragulanescu H.M. Gladney Glynn Harmon Paul Sturges 

Dr. Hanne Albrechtsen, Institute of Knowledge Sharing, Denmark

Congratulations on your successful finalisation of the knowledge map study! I look forward to disseminating the results of your study in the classes I teach, and especially the classes I am going to teach from September this year, in connection with a new curriculum in Information Management, at the Copenhagen Business School. I think that your study will be most useful for the faculty as well, in order to define a research framework for their field. [March 11, 2007]
Jacek Borysowski, Poland
It was a great pleasure to read your articles, and let me express my admiration for the way of explaining the philosophical problems. Following Einstein’s position that a scientist who can not explain his idea to a child does not worth the attention, you passed this test. My 12 years old son did not have any problems to understand your point of view (which does not mean that he accepts it).
Although defining "data", "information", and "knowledge" gave me no base for doubts, the agnostic point of view at the existence of world of knowledge is something that I can not agree with.  The question about the way of existence of knowledge (i.e. objective or subjective) seems to be crucial as the consequences of the answer can lead us to different definitions of information science. Following a subjective, or ‘a bucket’ theory of human knowledge would limit IS to neurosciences. As a fan of K.R. Popper I have no choice but to insist on independence of 3rd World from human mind, which makes IS independent and mathematical science.
Regarding your example of the Jones family, the scientist and poet, I think that there is a big difference between a lost poem and a lost discovery. In case of death of both members of the family, a scientific discovery can be made once again by others only on the base of Mrs. Jones diary with a small note about it – as it happened many times in the history of mathematics. What is more, majority of the scientists would agree that this is EXACTLY the discovery which Mrs. Jones made, even if she can not confirm it. This observation can lead us to the assumption that mathematical theorem of Mrs. Jones exists independently from her, or is, at least, independently verified.
Recovery of Mr. Jones' poem is not possible without a creator even if one has information that the poem was about the gentle wind in his wife’s hair. A poem is connected to the mind of the author and although it can have its influence on the world of knowledge, it cannot be the object of observation if we want to make IS a branch of human activity based on scientific methods...
In the same article you defined universal knowledge as "recorded, documented, or physically expressed subjective knowledge”. Do you mean that logarithm charts or statistical data created by computers and never read by any human being are excluded from knowledge?  [Yes. These are mere sets of characters; not knowledge. Chaim Zins]
The question whether Information Science should focus on psychological aspects of human activities or on their objective results is still open. Still I think that the world of universal knowledge can bring us better results.
Before expressing my admiration to the knowledge map let me tell you about some researches that I made. A few years ago I divide all branches of science into three groups following Popper's division of the world. Geography, physics... formed group 1, psychology, psychiatry...- group 2, mathematic, logic, linguistic...- group 3.
I was interested to present the condition of IS so I analyzed the index of LISA (Library and Information Science Abstracts) to find the relation between IS and other branches of science. The results were really astonishing. I wonder if this method could be applied to the Knowledge Map of Information Science. It seems interesting and useful to find out how many IS scientists explore FOUNDATION problems, how many explore USER oriented problems, and the like. Historical comparison can show the trends in development of IS.
The map itself is really useful in clearing up the idea of information science for me and my students".  [September 6, 2007]

Prof. Anthony Debons, University of Pittsburgh, USA
The JASIS paper was superb !! I have included the conclusions from your study in the forthcoming text "Information Science 101". [March 3, 2007]
Prof. Nicolae DragulanescuUniversity Polytechnics of Bucharest, Romania
I visited all the pages in your website and read all your papers related to your mapping study, "Knowledge Map of Information Science". You did a very hard and smart work !!! Congratulations !!!

I recommend that you'll continue to work
on the theoretical foundations of Information Science on an international basis. I would be delighted to translate your website pages to Romanian and French.

I am delighted to inform you that my book entitled Information Science and Technology - Genesis and Evolution was recently published by Denbridge Press, New York.
Chaim Zins: Thanks Nicolae, for your great idea. I will be honored If this website will be translated to Romanian and French. [March 9, 2007]

Dr. Henry M. GladneyHMG Consulting

In the Digital Document Quarterly (DDQ), Voulum 6, Number 2 (July 2007) Dr. Gladney published a commentary on this study and on other academic studies and projects.  
Prof. Glynn Harmon, University of Texas at Austin, USA

You did a beautiful job posting it all in a nice accessible way for all to see, and I am sure that the collective set will be a monumental work. [March 14, 2007]
Prof. Lena Vania Pinheiro, Brazilian Institute for Information in Science and Technology, Brazil

Prof. Paul Sturges, Loughborough University, UK

I must say that this has been an impressive project and you have done very well to involve such a large and significant group. As you know, my own participation was minimal, but that doesn't mean I don't admire what you have done. [March 9, 2007]

Data, Information, Knowledge

G. Athithan  
Dr. G. Athithan, Head, Information Sciences Division, Center for Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Bangalore, India

I find the variety of views on Data, Information, and Knowledge interesting. I am a research scientist in a Govt. funded laboratory in Bangalore India and I have been reflecting on this topic too over the last ten years. My views on  data, information, and knowledge are as follows.

Data are raw numerical entities or values. They can be qualitative or logical as well. Examples are 36.4, 9.78, High, False etc. These are of course scalar in form. Data may also be organized in the form of a vector, matrix, etc.

Information. When we tag or label a given piece of data, we get information. Connected pieces of labeled data are also information. Some examples are the following.

   i)   Temperature of the room is 36.4 Deg. C.
   ii)  The risk is high and returns are low. 
   iii) '20 June 2006 is a holiday' is false.
   iv) The state of the system is S, a vector

Knowledge. Information that is constant or invariant with respect to space, time, or any other extensible parameter becomes knowledge. Generalization of information and causally connected information also become knowledge. The following examples are illustrative.

  i)   Summer temperatures in Bangalore India are always < 40 Deg. C.
  ii)  Sundays are Government holidays.
  iii) Sun rises in the east
  iv) The density of gold is 13.6 gm/cc
  v)  If the temperature of water is 110 Deg. C, it is boiling.

All the three may have hierarchies or multiple layers of their own. One may derive or relate these entities at one level to entities in lower or higher levels. Thus one can talk about higher or lower level information; similarly higher or lower level knowledge.

I feel that the above outlook on data, information, and knowledge is somewhat practical and can be applied concretely. [March 3, 2007]

Knowledge Science

Alireza Noruzi
 Alireza Noruzi, the University of Tehran, Dep. of LIS, Iran
I read your articles about "Knowledge Science". They are really interesting and useful. I'm talking about your suggestion to change the name of "Information Science" to "Knowledge Science", which is rational. But we have the same problem in our country and since 1970 Dr. Hooshang Ebrami, suggested to chose "Knowledge Science" for "Library & Information Science". He even published a book titled "Introduction to Knowledge Science"
شناختی از دانش شناسی
This book is one of the classical LIS books in our field and it was reprinted several times. Unfortunately, the book is in Persian and some years after the Iranian Revolution, Dr. Ebrami went to the USA. But his idea was not accepted and nobody wants to write about this subject. Finally, he died in the USA and anything finished.

Now, I, as an information professional, try to quicken his Idea therein into active life expression. This is the reason for creating a weblog entitled "Knowledge Science" (دانش شناسی) at: I write about KS, IS, Scientometrics, Bibliometrics, Data, Info, Science & Knowledge. I presented some of your articles there.
Moreover, last year one of LIS departments established a Persian journal called "Journal of Knowledge Science". [March 2, 2007]
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November 2013   Copyright Dr. Chaim Zins, Jerusalem, 2002-2013. All rights reserved. 
Chaim Zins, Knowledge Mapping Research, 26 Hahaganah St. Jerusalem, 97852 tel: 972-2-5816705