Knowledge Mapping Research
The Knowledge Tree

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Knowledge | Supernatural | Matter & energy | Space & Earth | Non-Human organisms | Body & mind | Society | Thought & art | Technology | History

ידע 1. Knowledge 

1.1 Theory 
  Philosophy of knowledge (Epistemology) (W
  Philosophy of science  (W)   

1.2 Context 
 • History of science (W)
 • Sociology of knowledge (W)
 • Sociology of science (W)

1.3 Methodology
 • Methodology of science (W)

1.4 Mediation
 • Information science (W)
 • Museology (W)
 • Scientometrics (W)

 10pk 2 image 2. The Supernatural 

2.1 Theory 
 • Religious studies (W)
  • Philosophy of religion (W)
  • Sociology of religion (W)
  • Anthropology of religion (W)
  • Psychology of religion (W)

  • History of religion (W)
  • Comparative religion (W)

2.2 Mysticism 
  • Mysticism (W)

2.3 Religions (W)

 2.3.1 Abrahamic
• Judaism (W)
   • Christianity (W)
   • Islam (W)

 2.3.2 Indian (Dharmic)
   •Hinduism (W)
   •Buddhism (W)
   •Jainism (W)
   •Sikhism (W)

 2.3.3 East Asian
   •Confucianism (W)
   •Yin and Yang symbol.svgTaoism (W)
   • Shinto (W)

 2.3.4 Iranian
   • Faravahar.svg Zoroastrianism (W)

 2.3.5 Ethnic 
   • Chinese Folk Religion (W)
   • Korean Shamanism (W)
   • Vodun (W)
   • Bantu Religion (W)

 2.3.6 New 
   • Bahá'í Faith (W)
   • Cao Dai (W)

 2.3.7 Ancient
  • Prehistoric Religion (W)
Ancient Mesopotamian Religion (W)

  • Ancient Egyptian Religion (W)
  • Ancient Greek Religion (W)
  • Inca Religion (W)

 10pk 3 image Pillar 3: Matter and energy 

3.1 Theory 
 • Philosophy of physics (W)

3.2 Principles
 • Physics (W)

3.3 Substances
 • Chemistry (W)

 10pk 4 image Pillar 4: Space and earth 

4.1 Theory 
 • Cosmology (W)

4.2 Space (W)
Astronomy (W)

4.3 Earth (W)
 4.3.1 Surface and substance
Physical geography (W)
Geology (W)
Soil science (W)

4.3.2 Interrelations 
Agriculture* (W)
   philosophy of agriculture (W)
• Environmental science (W)
• Emergency management (W)

 10pk 5 image Pillar 5: Non-human organisms 

5.1 Theory 
• Philosophy of biology (W)
• Bioethics (W)

5.2 Basic sciences
Biology (W)
 Agriculture* (W)

5.3 Health and wellbeing 
• Veterinary medicine (W)

 10pk 6 image Pillar 6: Body and mind 

6.1 Theory 
 Philosophy of mind (W)
 • Philosophy of human biology
 • Human bioethics (W)

6.2 Basic sciences
 Human biology (W)
 Psychology (W)
 • Cognitive science (W)
 • Neuroscience (W)

  Forensic science (W)
  Sports science (W)
  Bioinformatics (W)

6.3 Health and wellbeing

6.3.1 Medical sciences

  Medicine  (W)
    Promoting health and alleviating suffering
    tally1Foundations (metaknowledge of medicine)
       tally2Theoretical basis
           Philosophy of medicine |
           History of medicne
       tally2Scientific basis (not part of medicine)
           Biology | Chemistry | Physics |
    tally1Specialities (body of knowledge of medicine)
       tally2Clinical medicine (Clinical specialities)
          tally3 Systems and Diseases
             tally4 Organs & systems
                  Internal Medicine
                tally5 Nervous system  
                     Neurology | Ophthalmology |
                tally5Cardiovascular system
                     Cardiology | Hematology |   
                     Internal medicine* 
                tally5 Respiratory system

                     Internal Medicine* | Pulmonology
                tally5Digestive system
                     Gastroenterology | 
                     Internal Medicine*

                tally5 Urinary system
                     Nephrology | Urology 

                tally5 Muscular system

                tally5 Skeletal System

                tally5 Endocrine system
                     Endocrinology |
                     Internal Medicine*

                tally5 Immune system
Immunology & Allergology |
                     Internal Medicine*

                tally5 Integumentary system
                     Dermatology & Venereology

                tally5 Reproductive system
                     Gynecology & Obstetrics

             tally4 Diseases & conditions 
                  Infectious Diseases | Oncology |
          tally3 Treatments and Technologies
              tally4 Curative
                   Surgery |
                   Intensive care | Urgent Medicine |
                   Plastic Surgery | Radiotherapy | 
                   Anesthesia | Pain medicine | 
                   Palliative medicine
              tally4 Preventative
                   Preventive medicine

          tally3 Patients
             tally4 Age
                  Pediatrics |
                  Neonatology | 
                  Adolescent Medicine |Geriatrics
             tally4 Gender:
                  Men's medicine* | Women's medicine* |
                  LGBTQ medicine 
             tally4 Populations
                  Family Medicine | Sports medicine |
                  Space medicine | 
       tally2Diagnostic medicine (diag. specialties)
           Anatomic pathology | Clinical biochemistry |
           Clinical microbiology |
           Diagnostic radiology | Nuclear medicine
       tally2Consultative medicine (con. specialties)
           Clinical pharmacology | Medical genetics |
           Occupational medicine | Public Health* 
       tally2Investigative medicine (inv. specialties)
           Legal medicine  
    - Foundations (metaknowledge of medicine)

      -- Theoretical basis

          Knowledge about medicine; part of medicine 

 Philosophy of medicine (W)
        Medical ethics (W
        • Sociology 
of medicine (W)
        History of medicine (W)
        • Medical research & evaluation (W)
        • Medical education (W)
        • Medical informatics (W)

      -- Scientific basis

         Basic Sciences at the basis of medicine;
         not subfields of medicine:

         Biology (| Anatomy | Biochemistry |
         Biophysics | Cellular Biology |
         Developmental Biology | Genetics
         Hematology | Immunology |
         Microbiology (Bacteriology, Virology)  |
         Molecular Biology | Physiology |
         Photobiology | Radiobiology) | Chemistry |
         Physics | Physical Chemistry | 
         Pharmacology | Toxicology | Nutrition & Diet |
         Psychology | Anthropology | Sociology |
         Mathematics | Statistics | Computer Science |
         Information Science | Bioinformatics |
    - Specialities (body of knowledge of medicine)

      - Clinical Medicine (Clinical Specialities)
        Specialities focusing on the individual person

          ---- Organs & systems
     Internal medicine (W)
       Cardiology (W)
       Cardio-oncology (W)
ritical care medicine (W)
       Endocrinology (W)
       Gastroenterology (W)
         Hepatology* (W)
       Geriatrics* (W)
      Hematology* (W)
      Immunology (W) and Allergology (W)
      Infectious diseases (W)
      Nephrology (W)
      Oncology (W)
       • Ethics in oncology
       • Cancer research (W)
       - Specialities
• Clinical oncology
         -- Body 
         Breast oncology (W)
         Dermatological oncology (W)
         • Gastrointestinal oncology (W)
                 Esophageal cancer (W) |
                 Stomach cancer (W) |
                 Pancreatic cancer (W) |
                 Liver cancer (W) |
                 Gallbladder cancer (W)
         Genitourinary oncology

         Gynecologic oncology (W)
         Head & Neck oncology (W)
         Hemato oncology (W)
         Musculoskeletal oncology (bones) (W)

         Neuro-oncology (W)
         Ocular oncology (eye) (W)
         Thoracic oncology (chest) (W)
         -- Age 
Pediatric oncology (W)

         Adolescent & young adult oncology (W)
         Geriatric oncology (W)
         -- Action
Molecular oncology (W)
                (see molecular medicine (W))

         Nuclear oncology (W)
                (see nuclear medicine (W))
         Pain & Palliative oncology (W)
         Preventive oncology (W)
                (see preventive medicine (W))

       • Radiation therapy (W)
       • Surgical oncology (see surgery (W))
     Pulmonology (W)
     Rheumatology (W)
     Sleep medicine (W)
     Vascular Medicine (Angiology) (W)
   • Neurology (W)
     Eye surgery (W)  
   • Otorhinolaryngology (W)  
    Pediatrics (W)
   • Surgery (W)
     General surgery (W)
     Cardiothoracic surgery (W)
      Cardiovascular surgery (W)  
      Thoracic surgery (W)  
     Vascular surgery (W)
     Pediatric surgery (W)
     Neurosurgery (W)
     • Vascular neurosurgery (W)
     • Stereotactic neurosurgery (W)
     • Oncological neurosurgery (W)
     • Skull base surgery (W)
     • Spinal neurosurgery (W)
     • Peripheral nerve surgery (W)
     • Pediatric neurosurgery
     Orthopedics (W)
     Ophthalmology (W)
     Otolaryngology (W)
     Oral and maxillofacial surgery (W)
     Plastic surgery (W)
     Urology (W)
      Endourology (W)
      Laproscopy (W)
 Urologic oncology
      Neurourology (W)

       Reconstructive urology (W)
      Urogynecology (W)
      Pediatric urology (W)

     Surgical oncology (W)
     Trauma surgery (W) 

   • Anesthesiology (W)
 Obstetrics (W) / G
ynecology (W)
   Psychiatry (W)
     Neuropsychiatry (W)
   - Diagnostic Specialities
   Anatomic pathology (W)
   Clinical Biochemistry (W)    
   Diagnostic Radiolog
y (W)
     Abdominal Radiology
      Gastrointestinal Radiology
      Genitourinary Radiology (W)

     Breast Imaging (W)  
 Cardiothoracic (Chest) Radiology* 
 (W) / 
         Head & Neck Radiology (W)
     Musculoskeletal Radiology (W)
     Nuclear Radiology (W)
     Oncological Radiology (W)
 Pediatric Radiology
    • Radiation Oncology (W) 

     Vascular / Interventional Radiology (W)
   Medical gentics (W)

 - Other Specialities

   Forensic medicine (W)
    • Forensic pathology (W)
    • Forensic psychiatry (W)
    • Forensic dentistry (W)
    • Forensic radiology (W)
    • Forensic toxicology (W)

   Molecular medicine (W)

   Preventive medicine (W)
   Public Health (W)

Dentistry (W)

 6.3.2 Paramedical Studies 
  Nursing (W)
  Midwifery (W)
  • Paramedicine (W)
  Pharmacology (W)
  Pharmacy (W)
  Toxicology (W)
   Physical Therapy (W)
  Occupational Therapy (W)
  • Podiatry (W)
Audiology (W)

  Speech-language pathology (W)
  Optometry (W)
  Clinical Psychology (W)
  Addiction Studies (W)
  Art Therapy (W)
  Animal-assisted Therapy (W)
  Genetic Counseling (W) 
  Nutrition (W) and Dietetics (W)
  Public Health (W)
  Medical Laboratory Science (W)
  Radiography (Wand Medical Imaging (W)

 6.3.3 Complementary medicine (W)
  Acupuncture (W)
  Herbal Medicine (W)
  Massage Therapy (W)
  Yoga (W)
  Clown Care (W)

 10pk 7 image Pillar 7: Society 

7.1 Theory
 Philosophy of Social Science (W)
 Social Philosophy (W)
 Social Theory (W) 

7.2 Society at Large

 7.2.1 General
  Sociology (W)
  Anthropology (W)
  Human Geography (W)
  • Demography (W)

7.2.2 Area-based
  Area Studies (W) (map)
    - Theory
• Area Studies Theory & History
    - Continents (W) (map)
   •Asia (W)
    North Asia (W)
         Siberia (Russia) (W)
    Central Asia (W)
         Kazakhstan (W) | Kyrgyzstan (W) |
         Tajikistan (W) Turkmenistan (W) |
         Uzbekistan (W)

    East Asia (W)
         Mainland: China (W)
         (incl. Hong Kong (W), Macao (W)
         and Tibet (W) | Mongolia (W) |
         North Korea (W) | South Korea (W)
         Islands:  Japan (W) |Taiwan (W)
    Southeast Asia(W)
         Mainland: Cambodia (W) | Laos (W) |
         Malaysia (west (W) | Myanmar (W) |
         Philippines (W) | Singapore (W) |
         Thailand (W) | Vietnam (W)
         Islands: Brunei (W) | East Timor (W) |
Indonesia (W) |  Malaysia (east) (W) |
    South Asia(W)
         Mainland:  Afghanistan (W) | 
         Bangladesh (W) |  Bhutan (W) | India (W) |
         Iran (W) | Nepal (W) | Pakistan (W) |
         Islands: Maldives (W) |  Sri Lanka (W)

    West Asia(W)
         Caucasus (W):  Armenia (W) |
         Azerbaijan (W) | Georgia (W) |
         Cyprus (W) | Turkey (W) |
         Israel (W) | Palestinian Authority* (W) |
         Bahrain (W) | Iraq (W) | Jordan (W) |
         Kuwait (W) | Lebanon (W) | Oman (W) |
         Qatar (W) | Saudi Arabia (W) | Syria (W) |
         United Arab Emirates (W) | Yemen (W)

   Europe (W)
    Eastern Europe (W)
         Belarus (W) | Bulgaria (W) | Czechia (W) |
         Hungary (W) | Poland (W) |
         Moldova (W) | Romania (W) |
         Russia (W) | Slovakia (W) |
         Ukraine (W)

    • Northern Europe (W)
         Baltic states (W):  Estonia (W) |
         Latvia (W) | Lithuania (W)   
         Nordic countries (W): Denmark (W) |
         Norway (W) | Sweden (W) |
         Finland (W) |
         Islands: Faroe Islands (W) |
         Iceland (W) | 

    Southern Europe (W)
         Mainland Albania (W) |
          Andorra (W) |
         Bosnia and Herzegovina (W) |
         Croatia (W) | Gibraltar (W) |
         Greece (W) | Italy (W) | 
         Monaco (W) | Montenegro (W) |
         North Macedonia (W) | Portugal (W) |
         San Marino (W) | Serbia (W) |
         Slovenia (W) | Spain (W)
         Turkey* (see Asia) (W) | Vatikan City (W)
         Islands: Corsica (W) | Cyprus (W) |
         Malta (W) | Sardinia (W) |
         Sicily (W) | 
    • Western Europe (W)
         Austria (W) | Belgium (W) | France (W) |
         Germany (W) | Ireland (W) |
         Liechtenstein (W) | Luxembourg (W) |
         Netherlands (W) | Switzerland (W) |
         United Kingdom (W)

  Africa (W)
    Northern Africa (W)
          Algeria (W) | Flag of Egypt Egypt (W) |
         Flag of Libya Libya (W) | Flag of Morocco Morocco (W) | 
         Flag of Sudan Sudan (W) | Flag of South Sudan South Sudan (W) |
         Flag of Tunisia Tunisia (W) |
         Flag of Western Sahara Western Sahara* (W)

    Sub-Saharan Africa (W)
     • Eastern Africa (W)
           MainlandFlag of Burundi Burundi (W) | 
           Flag of Djibouti Djibouti (W) | Flag of Eritrea Eritrea (W) |
           Flag of Ethiopia Ethiopia (W) | Flag of Kenya Kenya (W) |
           Flag of Malawi Malawi (W) |                     
           Flag of Mozambique Mozambique (W) | 
           The flag of Rwanda: blue, yellow and green stripes with a yellow sun in top right corner Rwanda (W) | 
           Flag of Somalia Somalia (W) | 
           Flag of Uganda Uganda (W) |
           Flag of Tanzania Tanzania (W) | Flag of Zambia Zambia (W) |
           Flag of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe (W)
           Islands: Flag of Comoros Comoros (W) |
           Flag of Madagascar Madagascar (W) |
           Flag of Mauritius Mauritius (W) | Mayotte (W) |
            Réunion (W) | Flag of Seychelles Seychelles (W) |

     Central Africa (W)
           Mainland:  Angola (W) | Cameroon (W) |
           Central African Republic (W) |
           Chad (W) | Congo (W) |
           DR Congo (W) | Equatorial Guinea (W) |
           Gabon (W)
            Islands: São Tomé & Príncipe (W)

     Western Africa (W)
           Mainland: Benin (W) | Burkina Faso (W) |
           Gambia (W) | Ghana (W) | Guinea (W) |
           Guinea-Bissau (W) | Ivory Coast (W) |
           Liberia (W) | Mali (W) | Mauritania (W) |
           Niger (W) | Nigeria (W) | Senegal (W) |
           Sierra Leone (W) | Togo (W)
           Islands: Cape Verde (W) |Saint Helena (W)  
     Southern Africa (W)
           Botswana (W) | Eswatini (W) |
           Lesotho (W) | Namibia (W) |
           South Africa (W)

   North America (W)
    Northern America (W)
         Mainland: Canada (W) | United States (W) |
         Islands: Bermuda (W) | Greenland (W)
    Middle America (W)
         Mexico (W) |
         Central America (W): בליז
Belize (W) |
         גואטמלהGuatemala (W) | אל סלוודורEl Salvador (W) |
         הונדורסHonduras (W) | ניקרגואהNicaragua (W) |
         קוסטה ריקהCosta Rica (W) | פנמהPanama* (W)
    Caribbean (W)
         Greater Antilles (W): 
         Cayman Islands (W) | Cuba (W) |
         Dominican Republic (W) | Haiti (W) |
         Jamaica (W) | Puerto Rico (W)
Lesser Antilles (W): 
Anguilla (W) |
          Antigua and Barbuda (W) |
         Aruba (W) |
         Barbados (W) | Curaçao (W) | 
         Grenada (W) | Guadeloupe (W) |
         Martinique (W) | St. Lucia (W) |
         St. Vincent (W) | Trinidad & Tobago (W) |
         US Virgin Islands (W) | Virgin Islands (W)
         Bahamas (W)

   South America (W)
        Argentina (W) | Bolivia (W) | Brazil (W) | 
       Chile (W) | Colombia (W) | Ecuador (W) |
       French Guiana (W) | Guyana (W) | 
       Paraguay (W) | Peru (W) | Suriname (W) |
       Uruguay (W) | Venezuela (W)
       Falkland Islands (W) |
       Galápagos Islands (W)

   Oceania (W) (map)
    Australia and New Zealand
         Australia (W) | New Zealand (W)
    Melanesia (W)
         Fiji (W) | New Caledonia (W) |
         Papua New Guinea (W) |
         Western New Guinea(W) |
         Solomon Islands (W) | Vanuatu (W)

         Guam (W) | Kiribati (W) |
         Marshall Islands (W) | Micronesia (W) |
         Nauru (W) | Palau (W) |

    Polynesia (W)
         American Samoa (W) | Cook Islands (W) |
         Easter Island (W) | French Polynesia (W)
         (including Bora Bora (W) and Tahiti (W) |
         Hawii (W) |  Niue (W) | Samoa (W) |
         Tonga (W) | Tuvalu (W) |
         Wallis & Futuna (W

   Antarctica (W)
    Intercontinental Areas
   • Arctic Circle (W)
   • Middle East (W)

7.3 Domains

7.3.1 Community Communication (W)
   Semiotics (W)
   • Linguistics (Wand Languages (W)
    Communication Studies (W) Contract

   • Political Science (W)
     Political Philosophy (W)

   • International Relations (W)
    Social Policy (W) Codes 

   • Ethics (W)
    Law (W) Conduct
    Social Psychology (W)
    Criminology (W)

7.3.2 Needs and Activities Security
   Military Studies (W)
   • Police Studies Health 
   Health Policy (W)
   Health Education (W) Economics
   Economics (W)
   Marketing (W) Education
   Education (W)
    Teaching/Pedagogy (W) Work 
   Work Studies (W) Welfare (W)
   Social Policy (W)
   Social Work (W) Environmental Planning 
   Urban Studies (W)
   Sustainability Studies (W) Human relations
   Conflict Management (W) Culture
   • Cultural Studies* (W) Communication 
   Media Studies (W) / Mass Communication (W)
   Journalism (W)
   Advertising (W) Recreation 
   Recreation Studies (W) Sport (W)
   • Sports Studies

7.3.3 Management
  Management Studies (W)

7.4 Social Groups

7.4.1 Gender
  Gender Studies (W)

7.4.2 Age 
  Gerontology (W)

7.4.3 Ethnicity (W)
   Romani Studies (Gypsiology) (W)

7.4.4 Themes 
  Family Studies (W)

 10pk 8 image Pillar 8: Thought and art 

8.1 Thought (W)

8.1.1 Reason (W)
  Philosophy (W)
   Theory (metaknowledge)
   •• Philosophy of Philosophy (W)
   • Sociology of Philosophy* (W)
   • History of Philosophy*
   • Aesthetics (see cat. 8.3.1) (W

   • Epistemology (see cat. 1.1) (W)
   • Ethics (see cat. (W)
   • Logic (see cat. 8.1.3) (W
   • Metaphysics (W)
   • Ontology (W)
   Philosophy of Language (see cat. 6.1) (W)
   Philosophy of Mind (see cat. 6.1) (W)

   Philosophy of Religion (see cat. 2.1) (W)
   Philosophy of Science (see cat. 1.1) (W)

   • Philosophy of Information (W)
   Knowledge Fields
   • Philosophy of (W)
   • Philosophy of physics (W)
   • Philosophy of Chemistry (W)
   • Philosophy of Cosmology (W)
   • Philosophy of agriculture
   • Philosophy of Biology (W)
    Political Philosophy (see cat. (W 

   • Philosophy of A
   • Philosophy of Law (W)
   • Philosophy of Linguistics (W)
   philosophy of education (W)
   philosophy of mathematics (W)
 philosophy of logic (W)
  philosophy of (W)
   • Philosophy of Architecture (W)
   • Philosophy of history (W)

philosophical anthropology;

 8.1.2 Representation
  Philosophy of Language (W)

8.1.3 Relations 
  Mathematics (W)
  Statistics (W)
  Logic (W)

8.2 Literary Arts

8.2.1 Theory 
  Literary Theory (W)

8.2.2 Works
  Literature (W)
   • Prose (W)
   • Poetry (W)
   • Drama (W)

   Debating (W) 

8.3 The Arts (W)

8.3.1 Theory 
  Philosophy of Art (Aesthetics) (W)
  Art History (W)

8.3.2 Forms
  Music (W)
  Dance (W)
  Theater (W)
  Opera (W)
  Entertainment (W)
  Painting (W)
  Drawing (W)
  Sculpture (W)
  Photography (W)
  Cinematography (W)
  Digital Art (W)
  Architecture (W)
  Conceptual art (W)

8.3.3 Themes
  African Art (W)

 10pk 9 image Pillar 9: Technology 

9.1 Theory
 Philosophy of Technology (W)
 History of Technology (W)

9.2 Professions
 Engineering (W)

9.3 Technologies

 9.3.1 Sciences Matter and Energy
   Electronics (W)
   Nuclear Technology (W) 
   Materials Science (W) Earth and Space
         Aerospace Technology (W)
         Marine Technology (W) Living World
   Biotechnology (W)
   Agricultural Technology (W)
   Medical Technology
   Ergonomics (W) Automation 
   Computer Science (W)
   Robotics (W) Integrated Technology
   Nanotechnology (W)

 9.3.2 Needs and Activities
  Aeronautics (W)
  Automotive Technology (W)
  Building Technology (W)
  Communication Technology (W)
  Educational Technology (W)
  Fire Fighting Technology
  Food Technology (W)
  Information Technology (W)
  Military Technology (W)
  Police Technology 
  Sports Technology 

 9.3.3 Materials
  Glass (W) Technology
  Water (W) Technology (W)

 9.3.4 Processes
  Cooling Technology
  Heating Technology

 10pk 10 image Pillar 10: History 

10.1 Theory
 Philosophy of History (W)

10.2 Universal Memory
  History (W)
  Archeology (W)

10.3 Relations
  Genealogy (W)


Area Studies is an umbrella name for hundreds of area-based interdisciplinary academic fields. The most useful division is by countries. Countries are political entities rather than geographical units. Still, the geographical division of countries seems very usefull. Note that the geographical division of the world into geographical regions and continents is academicaly debatebale. Key resources: the United Nations geoscheme (see M49 Standard).

Philosophy is an academic discipline that studies human reason, basic concepts and principles underlying thought and action, the essence of human existence and the meaning of life and the theoretical foundations of knowledge, through logical and systematic thinking. There is no consensus on the definition of the term "philosophy", its scope and its division into fields and subfields. Here, the initial division is between the fields that are part of the meta-knowledge of philosophy (listed in the 'Theory' section) and the philosophical fields, which form the field of philosophy. The philosophical fields are organized according to five emphases: the explored phenomena (i.e., these are the main branches of philosophy), the knowledge fields (i.e., these are subfields of philosophy focusing on the theoretical foundations of specific fields: for example, philosophy of chemistry), the philosophical stances (i.e., these are subfields of philosophy focusing on specific schools and traditions), the cultural environments (e.g., western and non-western philosophies) and the historical periods (e.g., ancient, medieval, renesanse, modern, and contemporary philosophies). Note, that the five divisions are collectively exhaustive but not mutually exclusive (meaning, they cover the field but there are partial overlaps among them). Key resources: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy